Computer intelligence - alternative to artificial intellect

Тема в разделе "Business ideas", создана пользователем Ilyinsky, 24 апр 2007.

  1. Ilyinsky

    Ilyinsky Active Member

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    Computer intelligence - alternative
    to an artificial intellect
    © Alexander Antonov, Nina Karnaukh, 2007
    e-mail: telan@com.relc.com; telannet@yandex.ru
    phone/fax: 38 (044) 424-3587

    Summary
    Problem of artificial intellect, corresponding ordinary human thinking, in foreseeable prospect cannot be solved. Moreover, for prevention of danger of occurrence of a computer civilization not under control to people it should not be solved.
    In scientific and technical aspect the new problem named by a problem of computer intelligence which corresponds to creative thinking of the person have been formulated and solved. The mass user can already get access to computer intelligence the nearest years. For this purpose investments are necessary. New problem named by a problem of computer have been formulated and solved.

    Сontents
    1. Intelligence, thinking, intuition.
    1.1. Than for us very much ценен a computer
    1.2. Intelligence human and computer
    2. The Artificial intellect
    2.1. A problem of an artificial intellect
    2.2. Danger of an artificial intellect
    2.3. And whether thinks of a computer now
    2.4. Why the personal computer yet does not think
    3. Computer intelligence
    3.1. A problem of computer intelligence
    3.2. The Safety precautions for computer intelligence
    3.3. Technical practicability of computer intelligence
    3.4. Necessity of cessation of work on an artificial intellect.
    4. Use of computer intelligence
    4.1. Use of computer intelligence for the decision of problems of knowledge 4.2. Use of a personal computer for the decision of problems of training 4.3. Use of computer intelligence for the decision economic problems
    5. Conclusions
    References

    1. Intelligence, thinking, intuition.
    1.1. Why the computer is very necessary to us.
    The answer to this question is easy - because unlike all other machines and devices which help us with physical work or is expanded with opportunities of our sense organs, it helps us to think. And it - unique in this quality.
    How much well it now helps, how much versatilly is not the main thing.
    The main thing is that the computer opens essentially new opportunities.
    As already exist and personal computers are accessible to the mass user.
    And that personal computers as intellectual assistants to the person, in many respects are yet perfect so it - is quite natural.
    Let's recollect, what were the first samples of the greatest inventions of the person - planes and cars, TVs and radio receivers, tape recorders and pens, phones and household chemical
    goods …
    Let's imagine also what were in diapers great intellectuals - Newton and Einstein, Korolev and Tsiolkovsky, Edison and Wiener, Tupolev and Sikorsky, da Vinci and Archimed, Pushkin and Shakespeare …
    So and at personal computers all of them great achievements still ahead.
    1.2. Intelligence of human and computer
    Personal computers are widely used in official bodies, offices of firms, at factories and factories, in scientific research institutes and design offices. Their use considerably raises labour productivity and reduces the cost price of production.
    At the same time in many vital areas of human activity computers presently are not used yet. Such problems, which personal computers now are not capable to solve, refer to as intellectual problems.
    In the literature, even science-fiction, quite often affirms, that the computer is capable to carry out very complex calculations, but intellectual (or creative) problems can solve only people, ingenious ideas can be born only in a head of the person.
    To intellectual problems which people can solve, for example, concern new scientific theories, successful stockjobbing, etc.
    About unpredictability and impossibility of scheduled creation of scientific theories even at work above corresponding problems - for example, fireballs, UFO, telepathy, telekinesis, etc. - greater scientific personnels the first president of the Ukrainian academy of sciences the academician of V. I. Vernadsky wrote [1]: "All history of a science proves continually, that, eventually, constantly there is the rights the lonely scientist seeing that others in due time to realize not in a condition".
    About unsuccessful attempts to explain the intuition and to describe algorithm of his successful exchange activity known financier Georges Soros wrote [2]: "… Heisenberg has formulated the scientific theory of uncertainty while my model helps to deal uncertainties with unscientific methods. This important distinction. According to scientific standards my theory is useless".
    Moreover, the numerous facts when state, party and religious persons some scientific problems declared unsoluble are known, the whole scientific directions recognized unscientific.
    For example [3], "… in 1496 the Spanish mathematician Paolo Valmes has met "the great inquisitor" and the fan of mathematics Foma Torkvemada. Conversation has come about the decision of the equations of 4-th degree. Torkvemada has declared, that such equations cannot be solved, as their decision Dominical for human reason is unattainable by will. Valmes in the answer has declared, that such equations are solved by he... In same night Valmes has been flung in prison inquisitions "for struggle against will of the God". In three weeks it has been burnt".
    To science the numerous facts when scientific community and even separate scientists declared some problems unsoluble are known. For example, in XIX century many authoritative scientists declared about impossibility to construct flying devices (so then named planes and helicopters) which will be heavier than air (despite of existence of birds and insects which also it is heavier than air).
    In this occasion the well-known physicist Nobel prize winner Maks Planck wrote [4]: "Usually new scientific trues win not so, that their opponents are convinced also by them recognize the неправоту, and mostly so, that these opponents gradually die out, and the rising generation acquires true at once".
    However there are intellectual problems which cannot solve yet and people. It is treatment of a cancer, AIDS and many other things of illnesses, it is the long-term forecast of earthquakes and other acts of nature, it is efficient control economy, etc.
    It explains by that in a real life often result of any event depends on very big number (quite often several thousand and more) the reasons or, in other words, factors, including unknown persons. But people can reveal only simple relationships of cause and effect when the number of the factors influencing result, is insignificant. Therefore much is still inexplicable and inaccessible to people.
    Therefore the opportunity of a prediction of microevents [5] even of the near future (for example, accident), unlike macroevents (for example, flight of the person to Mars), is supposed fantastic.

    2. An artificial intellect
    2.1. A problem of an artificial intellect
    It is quite logical to approve, that if now the computer already helps us to think (and that else it does: unless to calculate or do logic conclusions are a physical work?) sometime it inevitably will start to think.
    However long persistent works on use of computers for the decision of intellectual problems which have named the decision of a problem of an artificial intellect (AI), have appeared practically unsuccessful.
    In this occasion director of institute of a name of Alan Tjuring in Glasgow doctor Donald Michi per 1984 wrote [6]: " … there are many natural problems. Many of them for the person are so trivial, that solving it seldom realizes them, that shows remarkable abilities to which on a modern level of development of computer facilities it is impossible even to be risen. Among these problems - possession of a natural language, understanding of oral speech, skill to understand surrounding conditions through visual perception".
    About same per 2004 the professor of the Kharkov national university of V. M. Kuklin wrote [7]: "The Nature, certainly, prompts us how to create an artificial intellect, but people are not capable to repeat yet achievement of the nature even in the minimal degree. Similar, that the person makes only the first and uncertain steps to comprehension of what surprising … it possesses abilities, and also what unique natural phenomenon it in itself is ".
    Apparently, for 20 years of optimism has not increased.
    2.2. Danger of an artificial intellect
    And almost simultaneously with a formulation of a problem of AI there was a comprehension possible danger AI.
    The opinion of authoritative scientists on it was such:
    • professor of Massachuset technology institute Norbert Wiener [8]: "The Question. Dr. Wiener, whether exists danger, what machines - computers will sometime dominate over people? The answer. Such danger undoubtedly exists. "
    • director of Alan Tjuring institute in Glasgow Dr. Donald Michi [6]: "The perspective to have the machine so talented and powerful with what we represent them to ourselves, can seem unpleasant, even frightening … However similar philosophical reasons… should not prevent to us to search for a way of application of new technics. If it will be possible, our future will be better, than possible for itself to imagine. If is not present, at us in general can not be the future".
    And what if created by hands (and brains) the person the computer, really, unexpectedly will leave from under the control?
    Even creating the robots, the new computer technics, the new programs, the new weapon, new biotechnologies, scientifics usually think of how it will be reflected in their career now. And do not think above the remote consequences of his research. In scientific community, unlike medical community, a principle "DO NOT HARM" yet did not become standard and obligatory for execution.
    Therefore it is very important to know, when computers will start to think. And beforehand it is time to start to think what to do already now that conceiving computers could not represent danger for people.
    2.3. And whether thinks of a computer now
    To answer this question it is necessary in it at least well to understand sense of each word. The sense of a word a "computer" is clear to everyone. It - that at many costs on a desktop. And whether we understand sense of a word "to think"?
    It is written in the encyclopaedia of Cyril and Mefodiya [9]:
    • "Intelligence (from latin Intellectus - knowledge, understanding, mind) - ability of thinking, rational knowledge".
    • "Thinking - the maximum step of human knowledge. Allows to receive knowledge of such objects, properties and attitudes of the real world which cannot be directly apprehended at a sensual step of knowledge".
    However from last definition can be drawn wrong conclusions that:
    • problems of an artificial intellect (for example, recognition of images) are not intellectual and to thinking do not concern;
    • and in general any inhuman, including computer, the intelligence cannot be.
    Therefore we shall give the definition, free from the specified lack: "The thinking is such analysis of the new information together with the repeated analysis of the old information which leads to the conclusions useful to the subsequent activity of the thinker".
    It is easy to notice, that according to this definition we suppose an opportunity of thinking of other alive essences. However they think differently, because at them of other way of life, other sense organs etc. In general at us with them only a planet the Earth.
    However further us computers interest only.
    For the answer to a question, whether thinks of a computer, numerous tests are offered:
    • Alan Turing test [10]: "it is possible to consider the computer reasonable if it is capable to force to believe us, that we deal not with machine, and with the person";
    • Norbert Wiener test [11]: "All the machines applying on reasonable, should possess ability to pursue a definite purpose and to adapt, and consequently to be trained";
    • Minsky and Papert test [10]: "The machine possesses intelligence if the task which it carries out, would demand from the person - be it on a place of the machine - intellectual efforts".
    However use of the specified tests leads to ambiguous results [10]. So, according to the criteria specified in tests Turing and Wiener, modern computers already think. And according to the criteria specified in the test Minsky and Papert, they yet do not think.
    And these contradictions in conclusions speak, in our opinion, an illegibility of used terminology. Namely, it is necessary to distinguish ordinary thinking which is peculiar to all people, and creative thinking of which few people are capable only.
    For example, tasks of recognition of images, mastering by oral and written speech, training to management of the car concern to ordinary thinking. Many of these problems at the person do not cause the slightest difficulties. But the same problems solve computers with greater difficulties. These tasks with reference to computers concern to a problem of AI.
    Tasks of creation of scientific theories, successful stockjobbing concern to creative thinking, etc., namely tasks with not completely certain conditions, solved by the person with use of so-called intuition which anybody could not explain precisely yet. And these tasks with reference to computers concern to a problem which we have named a problem of computer intelligence (CI).
    Apparently, tests Turing, Wiener, Minsky and Papert concern to different kinds of thinking.
    Now experts on computer technics, programming, psychology dealt with only a problem of AI and did not deal with problem CI, believing, that problems of ordinary thinking are always easier than problems of creative thinking. Therefore they do a conclusion that it is impossible to seize creative thinking, not having seized usual thinking. Also dealt with a problem of AI, but did not deal with problem CI.
    For people this statement is correct. And for computers, it appears, wrong!
    The matter is that simple and complex in a human civilization and wildlife surrounding us there correspond essentially various concepts.
    Let's examples. In wildlife rotating details, for example, wheels, propellers, gears are not used. In aircraft flying devices with wings, on the contrary, are not used. And in ground transport walking or jumping cars are not used.
    Still an example. For the person mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, multbigogcation and division are the elementary, and and mathematical operations differentiation and integration are more complex. In analog radio electronics the elementary for realization are mathematical operations of differentiation, integration, addition and subtraction, and more complex - mathematical operations of multbigogcation and division.
    Now we can answer a question in heading. Using our definition of concept of thinking, we shall unequivocally answer - any modern computer (personal, even a supercomputer) to think cannot yet because everything, that the computer does, it does only for the blessing of the person.
    By the way, and people who blindly carry out another's orders, never are greater intellectuals.
    2.4. Why the personal computer yet does not think
    But the resulted answer incomplete. Obviously, there are also other reasons which are not allowing a computer to think.
    That it is better to understand these reasons, it is useful to compare the person and a personal computer, as information machines as they have much in common:
    • the person, as well as at a computer, has means of processing of the information is its brain;
    • the person, as well as at a computer, has means of storage of the information is its memory (also being in a brain);
    • the person, as well as at a computer, has means of input of the information is its sense organs, etc.
    Thus processor of the personal computer on the degree of the perfection, it would seem, considerably excels the processor (i.e. cerebrum) of man. Really, personal computer with high speed carries out calculations of multiple-valued numbers under complex formulas. The person in mind to solve such tasks is not capable. And even on a paper or on the calculator does it slowly.
    However the brain of the person prompts it correct decisions in difficult vital situations when many important circumstances are short known or even are completely unknown. Moreover, it possesses very valuable property - intuition which meanwhile anybody cannot explain. And this intuition helps the person to find a way out of, apparently, desperate situations.
    Thus, the processor of a computer as much as complex, but precisely formulated problems solves much more quickly the person. However the computer does not solve indistinctly formulated problems, and the person solves. But how? It still is not known.
    Means of storage of the information in a brain of the person on information volume surpass an information memory size of a personal computer. Moreover, this memory continuously during all life includes the new information
    And the basic means of input of the information in a brain of the person are eyes. Through them comes more than 90 % of all information received by the person [6]. Therefore the person thinks basically visions. Eyes as means of input of the information, are much more high-speed means, than the keyboard of a computer or the modem connected to the Internet. Therefore memory at the person not such empty, as at a computer.
    Hence, the person is now considerably more perfect information machine, than personal computer (and any another computer).
    So the personal computer is worse than the person, because:
    • it has a smaller information memory size;
    • it has smaller speed of input of the information;
    • it stores in the memory of less information which is less adequate to a task solved by the user;
    • it solves tasks in less perfect algorithms.
    Thus, the second (but not last) reason which is not allowing now a computer to think, is that circumstance, that its memory is insufficiently perfect. And, in particular, often does not contain enough valuable and enough the full information.
    So, the intelligence of a computer, as well as the person, is defined by a degree of perfection not only the processor, but also its memory and its contents.
    Whether and the person in any sense of this word could think, being in similar conditions? For example, to operate the moving car, not seeing road on which goes. Or to operate the company, not knowing market conditions. Naturally, no.
    Here and the computer for the same reasons cannot think. But only while. As the specified reason can be eliminated.

    3. Computer intelligence
    3.1. A problem of computer intelligence
    So what must be done, that the personal computer got possibility to think [12], [13]? Or, in other words, how to realize CI?
    From the above-stated follows, that for the successful decision, at least, before listed multifactorial problems CI, unlike problems of AI, great volume of the authentic initial information is necessary. Therefore to realize CI, computer memory is necessary to make more humanoid, namely:
    a. the information volume of computer memory should be considerably increased;
    b. the processor should have minimal time of access to all available in such computer memory of the information;
    c. computer memory should be as much as possible full loaded by the necessary information;
    d. loaded into computer memory information should be as much as possible authentic, namely this memory should contain the freshest information and forget essentially out-of-date information.
    Thus we shall note, that the condition "a" is already realized by developers of personal computers, as extremely actual. And consequently they in development of memory of personal computers reach very much greater successes. Moreover, computer memory can be considerably increased, for example, due to use of several winchesters.
    The condition "b" means, that the database used by a personal computer should be personal, namely. to be stored in memory of the personal computer (instead of in the removed database of collective using, communication with which is supported through the Internet).
    Conditions "c" and "d" mean, that the information containing in such personal database, should be so full and authentic, that will allow to solve correctly a problem of the user. Hence, these conditions mean, that the personal database should continuously and with as much as possible high speed to be updated.
    Memory of a personal computer, which will satisfy to conditions "a" - "d" (and now such memory still is not present), we shall name personal memory [14] - [17].
    3.2. The safety precautions
    And whether the conceiving computer is necessary to us?
    Really, before to create conceiving computer, it is necessary to understand, and whether it is necessary to us. For this purpose it is necessary to answer questions:
    • If computers become cleverer than the people, whether they to themselves will subordinate people?
    • Under what circumstances people can use conceiving computers, not having given it to dominate over itself?
    • How much urgently people should answer all these questions to not lose the control over a situation?
    And at once we shall give the answers to these questions:
    • Yes, if not to accept special measures, in the future there can be the computer civilization not under control to people representing for people at least potential danger.
    • That people could use conceiving computers, not having given it to dominate over itself, it is necessary to observe the corresponding safety precautions (about it see below).
    • All these problems to people is necessary to solving in 21-st century, differently will be late.
    Whether we exaggerate danger of conceiving computers?
    And here can be another question: whether there is no here a contradiction? Really, on the one hand, we speak about dangers from computers if they become cleverer. And on the other hand, we search for ways of reception to the order of such clever computers.
    The answer is obvious - naturally, no. In fact dangers threaten the person at careless use and other achievements of science and technology: cars and planes, atomic engineering and genic engineering, the Internet and household electrical engineers, medicines, household chemical goods and many other things. But for this reason in fact nobody is going to refuse the blessings of a civilization. Simply people know, that there is a corresponding safety precautions which should be observed.
    The corresponding safety precautions is necessary for observing and at use of computers. With reference to computers these security measures, obviously, should is guaranteed to exclude an opportunity independent thinking not under control to the person and use of results of such thinking in harm to the person. Such measures, in particular, could be:
    • prevention of an opportunity of association of intellectual resources of the big number of computers not under control to the person;
    • prevention of an opportunity of use not under control to the person by computers of databases (especially on computer technics and programming);
    • prevention of an opportunity of change of computers of programs stored memory not under control to the person;
    • prevention of an opportunity of connection of computers not under control to the person to energy sources;
    • program interdiction on drawing by computers of harm to users;
    • cessation of work on an artificial intellect (see item 3.4 ).
    3.3. Technical practicability of computer intelligence
    We shall remind, that that the personal computer could think, it, at least, should be equipped by personal memory.
    Technically such personal memory can be realized by connection of memory of personal computers through special television adapters [18] to global (or, at least, to large regional) networks of translation of the computer information on television (or other broadband, for example, fiber optics) to liaison channels. Such new information network for definiteness we shall name Telannet [19]. For such network the available not finished loading channels of a television announcement (including satellite) first of all can be used. And then additional TV channels for this purpose will be created also. It will allow to accelerate considerably process of loading of personal memory by the information broadcast on TV channels which is transferred with a speed approximately in one thousand times of higher, than on phone channels.
    Moreover, on TV channels the information is broadcast to very big number of users simultaneously, that in addition, on some orders, raises throughput of Telannet.
    Therefore the subscription payment will be very low (on some orders below, than on the existing Internet).
    High reliability of television translation of the computer information can be provided by use of noiseproof codes.
    Essential additional advantage of such system of information support of personal memory of personal computers by means of Telannet, unlike the existing Internet, is reliable maintenance of information safety of personal computers, namely effective protection against computer virus infections, against hackers, against network espionage, against spam.
    The urgency of this advantage Telannet proves to be true, for example, the forecast of the professor of Helsinki technological university Hannu Kari which believed, that because of destructive influence on the existing Internet of unfair users in 2006 practically will stop the its existence [20].
    At last, we shall note, that the above described information network Telannet is not alternative to the Internet, and is its addition as creates new services which cannot be realized on the existing Internet.
    To develop such global television network of information support of personal memory of computers (first of all personal) it is possible very quickly, because practically all for this purpose already is: satellite retransmitters, stations of the radio and cable television announcement, corresponding information services. And to organize development and release on the market of the new software and television adapters simply.
    3.4. Necessity of cessation of work on an artificial intellect.
    In item 3.2 it was already spoken about real danger of submission to itself of people by conceiving computers. And in this connection corresponding measures of the safety precautions which observance will allow to prevent capture of authority by computers were offered
    In this list it is necessary to add one more powerful means - to stop (even moreover - to forbid) works on an artificial intellect, including on creation of robots.
    Really, as it is noted in section 4.2, not creative thinking to the person even is more necessary creative, because it is required continuously all time for maintenance of its ability to live. Same it is fair and for a computer civilization, because the computer civilization cannot appear, if the problem of СI will not be solved. But such computer civilization becomes extremely dangerous if else problem АI will be still solved also. Therefore it is necessary to choose what from these two problems - СI or АI - to mankind should be solved.
    The decision of problem CI is obvious to people more necessary the decision of a problem of AI as will provide a rapid progress of all mankind, including economic. And therefore in the future computers which will receive ability of creative thinking and by virtue of it capable to represent greater danger to the person, should not have at all an opportunity to exist without the person.
    If for computers will be solved problems and CI and AI already nothing will rescue people as inevitably there will be such madman who will try to unite in computers of an opportunity of computer and artificial intelligence.

    4. Use of computer intelligence
    4.1. Use of computer intelligence for the decision of problems of knowledge
    Such personal computer equipped by personal memory which for information support is connected to network Telannet, will be already capable to solve at least some creative problems which concern to problem CI. And first of all it is scientific problems which concern to knowledge of laws of essentially multifactorial processes. To them concern scientific and technical (for example, thermonuclear synthesis), medical (for example, diseases), geophysical (for example, earthquakes, a tsunami), meteorological (changes of weather), biological (for example, ageing) and many other things.
    However as the conceiving computer, unlike a personal computer as it was mentioned in sections 3.2 and 3.4 can represent greater danger, it is guaranteed not should to have an opportunity to think independently. The conceiving computer as the intellectual assistant who will think only together with the person and only for the blessing of the person is necessary for people.
    Therefore unlike independently conceiving computer which is dangerous to the person, a computer which will think only together with the person, it is expedient to name somehow differently. For example, an intellectual computer.
    And that the intellectual computer could render the real help to the person in its creative thinking, it is necessary to understand what the help is required to the person. Or in other words, what stages of process of creative thinking for the person are difficult, and what not so.
    Therefore we shall formally divide process of such creative thinking into two different under the maintenance of a stage:
    • revealing of the factors essentially influencing investigated process, and elimination of unimportant or absolutely insignificant factors;
    • definition of mathematical dependence between the revealed essential factors.
    It appears, that for the person the most difficult during creative thinking is the first stage, namely revealing of the essential factors influencing results of investigated process, and elimination of insignificant factors. The person is capable to analyze rather successfully only those processes in which the quantity of the factors interconnected by relationships of cause and effect is very insignificant, namely does not exceed two - three. It speaks, obviously, that as the person lives in the three-dimensional world, that, thinking of visions, it can easily imagine two-dimensional or three-dimensional dependences. And already in more multivariate space the person even the elementary problems - for example to present, as the cube in four-dimensional space looks - to solve cannot any more.
    But the majority of events occuring in a real life - earthquakes and other acts of nature, changes of weather, illness, economic crisises, failures of systems and mechanisms - grow out interaction much a lot of factors.
    The second stage of thinking at the people knowing to the mathematician, usually does not cause difficulties.
    And for a computer equipped by the corresponding software, neither the first, nor the second stage of thinking does not cause difficulties. But under one condition. Namely, provided that in personal memory of a computer the information which comprises the answer to a problem set by the user will be loaded. Otherwise no intellectual computer will help.
    Let's explain told. If you, for example, wish to learn how to fish, using the fullest information, but on everything the friend - we shall tell, about gathering mushrooms - you will not manage to make it.
    In other words, the multitude containing in memory of a computer of the information should is obligatory to include completely a submultitude of a trustworthy information on an investigated problem. Otherwise the investigated problem anybody - neither by the computer, nor by the person - can be never solved.
    4.2. Use of a personal computer for the decision of problems of training.
    Above in sections 2.2.2 and 2.4 we have already mentioned two reasons which do not allow now to computers to think independently. Moreover, in section 3.2 we, speaking about the safety precautions with reference to intellectual computers, have emphasized, that by their development should be is guaranteed the opportunity of such independent thinking is excluded. Intellectual computers should have an opportunity to think only together with the person. More precisely, only to help to think to the person.
    Remembering it, we shall note one more reason which is not allowing computers to think - absence of a feedback independent of the person. The matter is that any information machine - both the person, and a computer - can become conceiving only gradually during its continuous training. And training, is in turn possible only at presence of a feedback, namely at reception of the information on results of the activity, about a degree of conformity of its results predicted.
    Here is opinion on this account of the professor Norbert Wiener [8] - "…the Question. Speak, that computers think. Whether so it? The answer. If to mean a present state of affairs computers can be trained. Computers can study to improve the work by its analysis… To name it thinking, a question terminological. That such things will receive much greater development in the future… in it, I think, is not necessary to doubt ".
    Moreover the knowledge and training, being components of uniform process of thinking, are indissolubly connected and alternate with each other similarly to a sowing campaign and harvesting in an agriculture. At workers of creative trades they even go in parallel all their creative life.
    Therefore both usual, and creative can be not only thinking, but also training. Both thinking and training are very necessary. So, the usual not creative thinking is necessary for each person for maintenance of its ability to live, and the creative thinking is necessary for all mankind for its development.
    To ordinary training - "do as I" - for example, the task to learn by heart the text "from these and up to these" in the textbook, training to driving of the car, etc. concerns. As a result of ordinary training knowledge and skills are transferred a trainee basically in a constant kind.
    To creative training - "make better others" - for example, preparation for participation and participation in competitions, Olympiads, postgraduate studies, doctoral studies, etc. concerns. As a result of creative training develops skills of self-training and self-improvement.
    Creative training therefore includes, at least:
    • education of skills of independent search of the new information - it is promoted by lists of the recommended literature where the material, naturally, is stated differently;
    • education of skills of the analysis of the found information, allocation of the main thing, understanding of its essence and interrelation with other material - for this purpose learn trainees to summarize;
    • emotional component - for this purpose in process of training include game elements, competitiveness;
    • positive motivation - from an oral praise to monetary stimulation in the author's and patent legislation.
    Such training already exists now. But it will be especially effective, than more begins to use a computer. In other words, has ripened necessity of transformation of process of training for pair the teacher/pupil in process of training in a triad the teacher/computer/pupil.
    Transition to new organizational forms of training can be begun already now, using personal computers and the existing Internet. Thus into house personal computers of pupils through the Internet or from machine carriers should be loaded at least:
    • necessary textbooks and manuals;
    • materials of competitions, Olympiads, school and student's conferences;
    • fictions, encyclopedias, dictionaries;
    • the popular scientific literature, including periodicals;
    • the translation programs, training programs and other developing programs.
    Thus electronic versions, for example, textbooks should differ presence of a significant amount of hyperlinks, extensive sections with possible questions and answers to them. Moreover, textbooks should be created both for especially talented, and for not developed pupils. There should be electronic textbooks for pupils of physical and mathematical schools, humanitarian schools, biological schools, cybernetic schools and other schools. In other words, conditions for training in view of specific features of trainees should be created all.
    And in process of expansion of computer-television network Telannet, connection to them of house computers of pupils and equipment by their additional software these computers it is necessary to learn to become intellectual assistants to teachers.
    4.3. Use of computer intelligence for the decision of economic problems.
    The knowledge of multifactorial processes of economy is not less important, than in a science. Really, despite of amazing successes of economic in XX a century, economic development of a society occurs much more slowly, than it allows a modern science and technics. Let's result in this occasion only one citation [6]: "… we shall look at deep stagnation in economy, a high rate of unemployment … All these phenomena which are really taking place, are at first sight absolutely inexplicable. …scientific and technical development occurs not simply to constant speed: what in the way we estimated its rates, it is obvious, that it steadily increase. Why we what exactly is not becomes grown rich by the same rates… All clearer becomes, what exactly complexity of the administrative mechanism is guilty in our economic stagnation".
    On the other hand, increase of labour productivity for last decades owing to new information technologies has led to qualitative changes of economy - to occurrence of the new phenomena to which there correspond terms decapitalization, globalization, a postindustrial society. They, in particular, reflect that fact, that in cost of an end-product a share of the expenses caused by intellectual work, more and i more ncreases. There was a big number of intellectual products in which cost the share caused by nonintellectual work and raw material, in general can be absent: patents, a know-how, the software, marketing researches, etc. The number of such products steadily increases. And today the developed countries are those countries in which the share of intellectual work in cost of an end-product already exceeds shares of nonintellectual work and raw material.
    Investment appeal of intellectual work considerably (on many orders) above investment appeal of other kinds of work. Therefore intellectual work is used most intensively with mainly rich countries where above the general educational level of the population, is better a telecommunication infrastructure and the highest standard of living of a highly skilled part of workers-intellectuals is provided. And from it such countries become richer.
    The new information technologies considered above corresponding decisions of some tasks of problem CI, allow to raise efficiency not only scientific, but also and enterprise activity that will allow to accelerate economic development of the countries which will use them.
    To such new information technologies intended for support of business, the exchange service of information network Telannet [21], [22] concerns.
    The corresponding global/regional computer-television exchange system contains the same components, as earlier considered information network Telannet. With unique difference - presence of a narrow-band network (for example, phone, fax, post, etc.) a feedback from personal computers to regional information centres.
    It will allow to create the most important service Telannet - the most perfect and largest electronic market. Presence in Telannet such service will allow to make the corresponding investment project as much as possible attractive as will provide its fast recoupment.
    The computer-television exchange system functions as follows. The existing databanks serving by the exchange centers, traditional way continuously accumulate the exchange information, which comes to them from the regions on narrow-band communication lines through existing inexpensive devices of input/conclusion of the information (for example, modems) and other regions on broadband communication lines. Thus, for example, first 24 hours it is kept in section of memory for new data, and then transferred in section of archival memory. A computer of the manager of a databank all new information is systematized, provided with indexes of corresponding qualifiers and periodic releases moves on the regional transferring center, whence finally extends on the region and all world.
    Users of computers after processing the accepted information on narrow-band lines of a feedback inform in the regional center the decisions about purchase/sale with the indicate of indexes of the corresponding goods, services, etc. They also on the same narrow-band channels of a feedback make the offers for the tenders. Thus they, naturally, carry out necessary bank operations. In the exchange center on the basis of this information the decision according to instructions of proprietors of the goods, services, etc. make.
    The considered exchange system with use broadband television, including geostationary satellite, liaison channels for a computer-television announcement and narrow-band channels of a feedback can be developed very quickly.
    Such computer-television exchange system will allow its subscribers to make the business (especially small and average business which is not having powerful advertising and marketing services) much more profitable and intellectual, as:
    • will allow to raise essentially a level of understanding of market condition and by that to increase efficiency of decisions of the problems accepted by businessmen;
    • will as much as possible pull together sellers and buyers;
    • will allow to accelerate a turn of financial assets considerably.
    Ideas are in the air!
    There just a considered idea of use CI for substantial increase of efficiency of enterprise activity already is realized on the basis of the existing Internet [23] - [25]. However, only for activity in electronic currency market FOREKS (Foreign Exchange Market). For this purpose it is offered to use so-called "trading robots" as which the author understands special computer programs of the analysis of the financial-exchange information and decision-making. That is, except for new programs, in this variant of use CI anything new is not present more, and all other hardware-software means already are available in the market.
    Naturally, in the specified publications in order to prevent losses to the commercial interests programs, algorithms of work of "trading robots" do not reveal. Hence these publications have substantially advertising character.
    However it is obvious, that in the program the base principle of any exchange tenders is used - to buy, when the rate is minimal, and to sell, when the rate is maximal. But this principle is very difficult for realizing in practice as it is very difficult to expect changes of an exchange rate. For overcoming the specified difficulty are usually used different forecast estimations on long interval of time. Therefore the majority of transactions on the stock exchange concern to a category intermediate term or long-term. Nevertheless, these forecasts often happen erroneous.
    Let's give an example. Great depression in the USA has begun in October, 1929. And in the beginning of the same 1929 in the inaugural speech the president of the USA Herbert Hoover spoke: "I do not have fears for the future of our country… We look ahead with optimism". Really, in January, 1929 rates of exchange indexes were three times above, than five years ago. But already by the end of October, 1929 Dow-Johns's index has fallen almost twice. And in 1932 the iron and steel industry of the USA worked hardly on 12 %.
    In the program "the trading robot", are used short-term transactions (for example, intradaily allowances) at which change of quotations of exchange actives is usually very small and it is not predicted in any way. Therefore traders in currency market FOREKS do not use them. And the computer program "the trading robot" uses. How? It is a secret of the author.
    Comparison considered above different variants of use CI in economy allows to draw following conclusions. Obvious advantage of "trading robots" is that circumstance, that they already exist and work. And work effectively.
    Advantages of computer-television exchange system in comparison with "trading robots" are:
    • its universality, namely an opportunity of use not only as the currency markets, but also any stock exchanges;
    • essentially higher speed of translation of the exchange information on network Telannet;
    • practically full information safety of use of information network Telannet;
    • an opportunity of the decision on the computers equipped by personal memory, various intellectual enterprise tasks.
    And as in modern conditions destiny of transaction on the stock exchange shares of second, Telannet, providing on some orders can solve higher speed of transfer of the information and full information safety in comparison with the existing Internet, it is represented simply vital.

    5. Conclusions.
    Such intellectual computer [26] accessible to the mass user (modern Arhimed, da Vinci, Edison, Tesla), will allow to raise considerably efficiency of creative activity which always is individual. Moreover, such intellectual computer will allow to make creative activity mass.
    Realization of this opportunity in a science, obviously, would render essential influence on development of mankind. For example, would began possible to carry out successful development:
    • new highly effective means of treatment of illnesses - including a cancer, AIDS, cardiovascular diseases;
    • new highly effective means of reception and accumulation of energy, for example, with use of thermonuclear reaction and the phenomenon of a fireball;
    • the equipments, allowing to carry out long-term weather forecasts, earthquakes, etc. acts of nature.
    Realization of this opportunity in training would allow to make accessible mass creative training in any corner of the country practically at a level of existing elite educational institutions.
    Realization of this opportunity in economy will render even greater influence on development of mankind as will render direct influence on well-being of people.
    One more essential advantage described above new information technologies is that circumstance, that Telannet has patent protection and, hence, allows the owners to receive the income which, will be presumably comparable to the income of operation of the Internet. For example, the income of operation of the Internet in 2004 has exceeded 7000 billion US dollars [27].
    In 1831 one member of the British parliament has asked the founder of the theory of an electricity Michael Faraday, what advantage to people can bring its works. Faraday has answered, that does not know. And after a while the industrial revolution caused by use of an electricity has begun.
    And now new information technologies, including described above, are so effective and will so change economic, that new industrial revolution can already begin tomorrow [28].

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